In order to present a public document for the authorities of another country (eg. for registration), a legalization is required. Legalization of a document is a measure related to the customer´s security right to ensure, that authority is entitled to issue such a document according to the laws of the particular country.
The Countries of Hague Convention of the 5th October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of legalization for foreign Public Documents (incl. Finland and the US) use for legalization this facilitated Apostille procedure. In these Convention countries a public document bearing a certificate of Apostille is recognized in any Convention country and no other measure of legalization is required. As to states other than the Convention countries, the legalization procedure has three stages.
In order to present the US origin document in Finland (eg. registration of birth, marriage, death or citizenship), the document shall be legalized by Apostille authentication. Apostille authorities in the US are:
Please note that a notarized document by a local US public notary does not qualify as Apostille authentication. Finnish missions in the US may not issue Apostille certificats.
In Finland the Apostille certificate to a Finnish document is issued by the Notary Public at the Local Register Office.
In case a Finnish citizen is arrested, imprisoned or lost his freedom abroad, he has the right to request the police or prison authorities to inform the Finnish Foreign Mission about the incident. The Mission will notify the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, which will forward the information to an appointed person in Finland requested by the defendant.
The progress of the case will be observed by the Finnish Mission within the extent its possibilities. The Finnish Mission may enquiry entitlement for a public defender/legal counselor or an interpreter, or may assist to obtain one if requested by the defendant. However the Finnish Mission cannot intervene in a legal process or request a specific court ruling nor affect the release of an arrested or imprisoned person. The Finnish Mission can neither give any judicial advice nor enter plea on behalf of the accused citizen as these assignments inhere within responsibilities of a legal counselor or an attorney.
Questions concerning the import and export of cars shall be addressed to the local authorities in Finland and the US. For further information from Finnish Customs and the corresponding authority in the US (US Customs and Border Protection) as well as the US Embassy in Helsinki.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs provides assistance for the Finnish Social authorities concerning paternity acknowledgement, maintenance agreement, custody, meeting rights and child protection, when one party lives abroad. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs also offers assistance on questions concerning child abduction.
Registration of a birth to Finland: A Finnish citizen born in the United States may be registered directly to the Local Registration office in Finland or via a Finnish mission abroad. There is no registration fee in Finland. Registration takes 2-3 weeks. The following documents are required:
Citizenship of a child: please see Citizenship
Paternity of a child: If only the father is a Finnish citizen and the parents were not married when the child was born, the child cannot be registered as a Finnish citizen before the father has made an acknowledgment of paternity (and a citizenship declaration). If the child was born before February 1st 2010, the paternity acknowledgement may take place at the Finnish foreign mission. If the child was born after February 1st 2010 and the place of residence of the whole family was abroad, paternity acknowledgement shall be done at a local authority. If the paternity acknowledgement is valid in the country where it was issued, it is generally applicable in Finland without further validation. A foreign paternity acknowledgement shall be forwarded to a Local Registration Office with the Apostille authentication.
Custody of a child is actualized as either single parent custody or a joint custody of both parents. Decisions made is the US regarding custody and meeting rights shall be implemented at Helsinki Court of Appeal to have enforcement in Finland.
Adoption of a child: When a foreign adoption is valid in Finland, the child will obtain Finnish citizenship.
Finnish citizenship is decreed by constitution and more detailed in Finland’s Nationality Act, which took effect in 1st September 2011. Finland has accepted multiple/dual nationality since June 1st 2003 and Finnish nationals will no longer lose their Finnish nationality when they assume another nationality.
If a Finnish national has acquired a foreign citizenship by naturalization prior to June 1st 2003, the person has probably lost his Finnish citizenship. Former Finnish citizens may re-apply for Finnish citizenship by declaration subject to a charge. It is recommended to find out a national law of a foreign state to avoid relinquish a current foreign citizenship unintentionally.
Registration of US citizenship to Finnish population registry
Law on Population Information Centre's certificate services obligates to register a new citizenship to the Population Information System. Registration of the US citizenship to Finland shall be done by sending either an original “Certificate of Naturalization” with Apostille authentication or a “Certified True Copy” with Apostille authentication to a Local Register office or a Finnish mission in the US. There is no registration fee in Finland and the process takes approx. 2-3 weeks.
1) Obtaining a “Certified True Copy”
2) Obtaining Apostille Apostille authentication for a US naturalization document or for a Certified True Copy is issued by the US Department of State Authentication Office in Washington D.C.: Instruction. Mailing the documents is done in one's own responsibility.
3) A document with Apostille authentication shall be sent either to a Local Registration Office or a Finnish mission abroad.
More information concerning US citizenship: www.uscis.gov.
Citizenship of a child
The citizenship of a child is determined by the Finnish nationality law in force when a child was born. A child may gain dual nationality at birth if the parents are married but have different citizenships. A child born in the US will gain the US citizenship.
Dual citizen at the age of 18-22; losing Finnish citizenship
Although a multiple nationality is accepted, a dual citizen loses his Finnish citizenship at the age of 22 if his/her ties with Finland have not been sufficiently close. Finnish citizenship can be retained on the basis of the sufficient ties defined Finland’s Nationality Act:
Losing and retrieving of citizenship; citizenship declaration
Former Finnish citizens, who have lost their Finnish citizenship may re-apply for Finnish citizenship by declaration subject to a charge, where a minor may be a co-applicant. The declaration procedure does not apply to Finnish citizens’ children (over 18 years of age).
Citizenship declaration may be submitted in person to a Finnish foreign mission or Honorary Consulate. Declaration may also be submitted electronically directly to the Finnish Immigration Service. In this case a personal appearance in required within one month either Finnish foreign mission or Honorary Consulate to be indentified and present the original document. In Finland the citizenship declaration may be submitted to the local police.
The forms may be printed from the website of the Finnish Immigration Service
More information from the Finnish Immigration Service, which is the decision making authority on the citizenship declarations and will send the decision directly to the applicant by post, and where also a definition of citizenship status subject to charge may be requested.
Information concerning the import and export to/from Finland shall be obtained from the Finnish Customs. Information concerning import and export to/from the US shall be obtained from US Customs and Border Protection.
When a Finnish mission receives notification concerning a deceased Finnish citizen in the US – eg. from a local authority, honorary consul, guide or other – the incident will immediately be informed to the next of kin of the deceased person through Ministry for Foreign Affairs . If needed, the Finnish mission will assist with issues regarding repatriation, burial or cremation of the deceased person according to the wishes of the next of kin.
Travel Insurance may cover the repatriation of the deceased to Finland or the costs of local burial in the US. If the deceased did not have travel insurance, the relatives are responsible for all costs. The costs of repatriation to Finland may be very high. If the deceased did not have assets or the relatives cannot be responsible for the repatriation nor burial, the deceased is buried in the US according to local legislation.
Repatriation of a funeral urn: A funeral urn may be transferred to Finland by airplane either as hand luggage in the cabin or as cargo by agreeing on the delivery with the airline. The funeral urn may not be sent to Finland by post or by courier (UPS, DHL, Fedex). An airline generally requires the following documents: death certificate with Apostille authentication, cremation certificate and Post Mortem Certificate if available.
Repatriation of a coffin: The practicalities will be taken care of by a local funeral home in the US and the receiving funeral home in Finland. The following document shall be present with the coffin: a death certificate with Apostille authentication, passport and Post Mortem Certificate if available.
The registration of a death to Finland: A deceased Finnish national may be registered directly to the Local Registration office in Finland or via a Finnish mission abroad. There is no registration fee in Finland. Registration takes 2-3 weeks. The following documents are required:
The regulations concerning foreign driving licenses are defined in each state in the USA. It is recommended to hold a translation of the driving license or International Driving Permit (IDP) issued by Automobile and Touring Club of Finland as they might be requested by police, by car rentals or in case of accident. Permanent US residents should obtain a local driving license. Find more information by contacting local authorities or Embassy of the United States in Finland.
The Finnish police can supply a duplicate of driving license to replace a Finnish driving license that has been lost, damaged or stolen, please contact police authority in Finland for application: www.poliisi.fi. The Finnish foreign missions do not issue driving licenses nor receive applications. The signature required for a renewal application can be notarized subject to a fee by Finnish missions (Embassy in Washington D.C., Consulate general in New York/ Los Angeles or honorary consuls). Notarial certificate has to be applied in person with a valid ID and by an appointment. Applicant shall forward an application form, photos, copy of an ID and other required documents (eg. police report) by oneself to the Finnish police. All the details concerning the renewing of the driving license such as payment, processing and pick-up/delivery must be agreed directly with the Finnish police.
A driving license extract issued by Finnish Transport Safety Agency Trafi is accepted in some cases (eg. car rentals) as a proof of the right to drive. An English driving license extract request can be performed to a foreign address with a Finnish bank ID from suomi.fi –service (search: driving license extract request). The Finnish Missions have no jurisdiction to prove a license to drive.
Addresses of permanent residents of Finland can be inquired for from the following address service: www.osoitepalvelu.net. There is also information on the address of Finns living abroad, if they have updated their information to the Finnish Local Register Office. More information from the Helsinki Register Office: email@example.com or tel. +358-71-8730191. Fees apply.
Address or other document inquiries of a person living in the US can be sent to the Unit for Consular Assistance of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: firstname.lastname@example.org or address: Ulkoasiainministeriö, PL 176, 00023 Valtioneuvosto. Fees apply. Inquiry shall consist of the following information:
Diplomatic Missions will inform the Finnish Foreign Ministry about estate matters if the inheritor presumably lives in Finland. The Finnish Foreign Ministry will pass this information on to the relatives if their identity and whereabouts in the US can be found out relatively easy.
In the case of a person who lives in Finland but has inheritance abroad, the inheritors can take care of the estate matters by themselves by contacting the administrator of the estate directly. The inheritors must deliver the required inheritance records with translations. In the case of possible estate problems, one needs to be in touch with the local authorities in the United States. By request of the inheritors the Finnish Foreign Ministry can do research on who manages the estate and who the administrator of the estate is.
United States genealogy agencies might provide their services to Finnish inheritors, but their contingent fees may be very high and in some cases unreasonable.
A fine or ticket, received in the US, is recommended to be paid to avoid any possible consequences (eg. next entry to the US). Usually there is contact information of the Court at the payment order of the fine, whether it can be paid online, by credit card or by phone. Acceptable methods of payment may vary by state. The Finnish foreign missions cannot assist with payments for tickets or fines.
A Finnish citizen may prove his identity abroad with a passport or in the European Union and Schengen area with a Finnish identity card, which has been issued after March 1st 1999. Holders of Finnish identity card can travel within the EU and Schengen area without a passport. Finnish citizens residing abroad can apply for an identity card at any police station in Finland. Finnish Embassies and Consulates are not authorized to receive applications for identity cards. More information: Finnish police.
In the US
The police will occasionally submit lost goods to the Embassy of Finland in Washington D.C. or the Consulates General of Finland in New York or Los Angeles, if the owner is identified as a Finnish citizen. The Finnish authorities do their best to contact the owner. Items that were lost on airplanes, trains or busses shall be inquired for directly from one´s lost and found offices.
Valid Finnish passports and driving licenses are sent back to the authorities that have granted the documents.
For information regarding the requirements and necessary documents for getting married in the US, please contact the appropriate authority: information concerning civil ceremony can be obtained from the local City Hall, Marriage Bureau and information concerning a religious ceremony can be obtained from the religious community in question.
Information regarding Finnish Lutheran church pastors abroad to solemnize marriages is available at www.evl.fi. Common information regarding solemnizing marriage abroad or in Finland is available at www.maistraatti.fi. Marriage ceremonies are not performed at the Finnish missions abroad.
The certificate of “non-impediment to marriage” is issued by the Local Register Office in the last place of residence in Finland.
Registration of a marriage to Finland: Marriages that were solemnized abroad are considered valid in Finland if the marriage is applicable in the country it was performed in, however only after it has been registered to the Finnish Population Register. The registration may be done directly to the Local Registration office in Finland or via a Finnish mission abroad. There is no registration fee in Finland. Registration takes 2-3 weeks. The following documents are required:
Divorce in Finland
A divorce may be initiated at a District Court by joint application or by one party: application form (only in Finnish or Swedish). Custody, child support, visiting rights and cohabiting as well as distribution of property may be settled in connection with the divorce.
Divorce in the US:
Divorces granted to a Finnish citizen/-s (incl. dual citizen) in the US must be confirmed by the Helsinki Court of Appeal in order to be valid in Finland. Confirmation request cannot be submitted to a Finnish mission abroad. The following documents must be submitted to Helsinki Court of Appeal (address: Helsingin hovioikeuden kirjaamo, PL 132, 00181 Helsinki) for the registration, all the documents must be translated to Finnish or Swedish by an authorized translator:
According to Finnish law, all Finnish men are liable for military service. According to the conscription act §1 this duty takes effect when a man turns 18 years and is in effect until the age of 60. Military service is carried out at the age of 18-29. Women may also complete a voluntary military service.
The call-ups will be held yearly between August and November for Finnish males who turn 18 years in that particular year. It is required for a conscript to keep his population register data up-to-date regarding citizenships and addresses, as every conscript will be sent a guide book and a letter concerning the place and time for the call-up. Failure to report at the call-up, without a legitimate reason is a criminal offence punishable according to the Finnish Conscript Act. Permission for absence or deferment may be granted only at a Regional Office of the Finnish Defence Forces. The call-up duty can be processed either directly to a Regional Office in Finland or via a Finnish foreign mission.
Multinationals can be exempted from military service. According to a bilateral agreement (25/1939) between Finland and the US, a dual citizen is not liable for military service in Finland as long as he permanently resides in the US. An exempted multinational conscript can be ordered into service if he moves to Finland before the end of the year in which he turns 30 (Conscription Act 75§). One should, however, verify that the dual citizenship and address information is properly registered in Finnish Population System. More information from the Local Registration Office.
More information: The Finnish Defence Forces
The quickest and easiest way to transfer money to the US is via e.g. Western Union or Forex both operate in several cities and various locations. In principle money transfer companies require an identity document when withdrawing assets.
If a distressed Finnish citizen or a foreigner permanently living in Finland is not able to receive assets via money transfer companies, the Finnish foreign missions may assist with money transfers via the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. A money transfer is done directly from person´s own account or against the deposit of the relatives (the fee is 40 Euros). The assistance for a money transfer may only be done the office hours of the mission and Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
Law on Population Information Centre´s certificate services (661/2009) obligates Finnish citizens to notify the Population Information System immediately of any changes to their personal data (including address change). The address change shall be done to the Local Registration Office within one week of the move each time when changing residence permanently or temporarily (incl. abroad) for more than three months. Notification of an address change is to be submitted to the Local Register office or to a Finnish foreign mission by filling out the following form: “Change of address notification form for a person living abroad when registered in the Finnish Population Information System”.
If a foreigner aims to stay in Finland permanently or for more than 90 days, a residence permit is required (more information from the Finnish Immigration Service: www.migri.fi). There is a guide to social security rights when migrating to Finland by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (KELA) “Moving to Finland”. Also a website www.suomi.fi offers information on public services in everyday life. Information concerning importing removal goods to Finland may be obtained from the website of the Finnish Customs.
With issues concerning immigration to the US, please contact the US authorities. Prior to the journey or moving to the US, it is recommended to check up-dated regulations either from local authority”US. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) ” www.uscis.gov or the US Embassy in Helsinki. General information in Finnish also:”Yhdysvallat: matkustusohjeita”.
Finnish foreign missions and Honorary Consuls may provide certain public notary actions as following:
In addition the Embassies and Consulates General may receive and confirm documents incl. a paternity acknowledgement. Notarial services carry a service fee. Appointment is required and a notarial act is not generally done while waiting.
Apostille authentication for Finnish and US public documents is sufficient and no other measure of legalization is required (see: Apostille). In Finland the Apostille certificate is issued by the Notary Public at the Local Register Office.
US J-1 Visa holders: no-objection statement can be obtained from the Embassy of Finland in Washington D.C. as a notarial certificate (fee applies). On the statement it can be stated, that Finland does not object releasing a visa applicant of a two-year foreign residence requirement of Section 212 (e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. The following documents are required for a statement: a notarized copy of the person's passport ID page, a notarized copy of the person's US visa (J1), address of the applicant, a letter explaining why she/he is requesting a waiver for the 2-year requirement to return home (=statement of reason) and a service fee. The Embassy sends the statement to the Waiver Review Division of the Visa Services of the US State Department. which sends the references directly to the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for the decision making. USCIS informs the applicant in writing. More information: US Department of State
In Finland, pension provision consists of the employment-based earnings-related pension and the residence-based national pension. The employment-based pension is achieved during the time of active participation in working life. The residence- based pension provides minimum security for those, who do not receive employment-based pension or whose pension is very low.
Further information on earnings-related pension can be obtained from the Central Pension Security Institute www.etk.fi or www.tyoelake.fi. Further information on the national pension can be obtained from the Social Insurance Institution (KELA): www.kela.fi.
Information on importing pets to Finland can be found on the webpage of Evira (Finnish Food Safety Authority). There is information concerning the requirements for the EU-pet passport as well as what is needed for the identification mark, rabies vaccination, echinococcus medication and what are the accepted border crossing points.
The export regulations are always within the jurisdiction of the destination country, more information concerning the US regulations can be obtained from the Embassy of the USA in Finland. Finland is not subject to any specific requirements regarding to export of animals.
Population Information Act (661/2009) obligates Finnish citizens to notify the Population Information System immediately of any changes to their personal data (including address change) during their residence abroad. Several rights and obligations concerning passport, military service, citizenship, pension, estate, tax and voting are determine according to the Population Information.
All documents concerning the Population Information (eg. marriage / birth / death abroad) are required to present with Apostille authentication. There is no fee. Population information may be submitted either to the Local Register Office of the latest residence in Finland or to the Finnish foreign mission abroad. Registration forms are available at the missions or website: http://www.maistraatti.fi/fi/lomakkeet/.
Instruction to register marriage, birth, citizenship, death and address change in Finland:
Own personal information can be checked from the Finnish population registry free of charge once a year: Check Your Registered Data.
The Public Service Info is an information point of the Finnish public services. The aim of the service is to direct citizens to the right service to find a correct an authority, support for e-services and answer general questions about public services in Finland. Contact information: www.kansalaisneuvonta.fi.
A Finnish mission can assist a Finnish citizen or a permanent resident of Finland in the case of an illness or accident with hospital care and other immediate help required by the incident. In addition, assistance can be provided to contact the next of kin residing in Finland. In the case of a sickness or accident, the mission can be in contact with the insurance company.
In Finland the social security is residence-based. To be eligible for social security benefits, it is usually required, that the applicant lives in Finland. According to Finnish legislation the social security benefits are not citizenship related. More information can be obtained from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (KELA).
“In To Finland” is the common service point of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) and Finnish Tax Administration for foreigners (employees/students) moving to and from Finland: www.intofinland.fi
Information concerning the Finnish tax system can be obtained from the Finnish Tax Administration.
“In To Finland” is the common service point of the Finnish Tax Administration and Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) for foreigners (employees/students) moving to and from Finland: www.intofinland.fi
The Finnish Foreign Missions do not generally do translations or act as an interpreter. The Embassy nor the Consulates General are responsible for external services.
People travelling to the United States are recommended to take travel and baggage insurance as well as liability and legal expenses insurance. Travel insurance enables more extensive health care and depending on the terms and conditions of the insurance, it also provides repatriation. In the absence of travel insurance, hospital care in the United States can become very expensive. Finnish missions are not liable for treatment or repatriation costs.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for organizing an absentee voting abroad. Every elector has the right to vote abroad in the absentee voting at the predetermined polling stations. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Justice will publish a list of the absentee polling stations as well as their business hours once the elections are nearing. The Ministry of Justice has the general responsibility for organizing elections as it is the highest electoral authority in Finland. More information can be obtained from: www.vaalit.fi